Gulick summarized the duties of administrators with an acronym; POSDCORB, which stands for planning, organizing, staffing, directing, coordinating, reporting, and budgeting. McGraw Hill: New York.  The Institute is a founding member and played a central role in organizing the Inter-American Network of Public Administration Education (INPAE). Some MPA programs include economics courses to give students a background in microeconomic issues (markets, rationing mechanisms, etc.) (2006). While there are some fundamental differences between public and private administrations, there is no denying that there are similarities between the public and private administration. , Though Chinese administration cannot be traced to any one individual, emphasizing a merit system figures of the Fa-Jia like 4th century BC reformer Shen Buhai (400–337 BC) may have had more influence than any other, and might be considered its founder, if not valuable as a rare pre-modern example of abstract theory of administration. Dating back to Antiquity, Pharaohs, kings and emperors have required pages, treasurers, and tax collectors to administer the practical business of government. He called public administration an integrating science, and stated that public administrators should be concerned with both theory and practice. Another example is Brunei's Information Department in deploying Social Media technology in improving its Digital Governance process. Many Administrative thinkers like Henry Fayol , M.P Follet, Luther Gulick, and Lyndall Urwick deny the distinction between these two. During the Clinton Administration (1993–2001), Vice President Al Gore adopted and reformed federal agencies using NPM approaches.  This example compares CO2 emission in the United States to other countries and through the buildings sector; the US could cut down on CO2 emission. The bureau-shaping model, a modification of Niskanen, holds that rational bureaucrats only maximize the part of their budget that they spend on their own agency's operations or give to contractors and interest groups. Fayol developed a systematic, 14-point treatment of private management. "As implementors, public managers engage these products." The best knowledge can be gained over time by constant practice. Lynn, L. E., Jr. (2006). , Some modern authors define NPM as a combination of splitting large bureaucracies into smaller, more fragmented agencies, encouraging competition between different public agencies, and encouraging competition between public agencies and private firms and using economic incentives lines (e.g., performance pay for senior executives or user-pay models). 2000. In Luton’s reading, Qualitative Case Study Approaches, he notes that the case study approach is common in public administration.  The lack of willingness to understand their culture led to more tension in the Middle East. Creel writes that, in Shen Buhai, there are the "seeds of the civil service examination", and that, if one wishes to exaggerate, it would "no doubt be possible to translate Shen Buhai's term Shu, or technique, as 'science'", and argue that he was the first political scientist, though Creel does "not care to go this far".. Annual CO2 emission attributed to electricity consumption in these U.S. buildings constitute 43% of the country's annual total CO2 emission, which is approximately equivalent to the total CO2 emission of Japan, France, and the United Kingdom combined. find what you are looking for faster... just search. Its biennial conference brings together ministers of public service, top public officials and leading scholars. 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