In particular, the Committee is concerned about: The ITUC states that there are increasing press reports on child labour, but that data collection is not systematic. Charged with “subversion of state power,” he could face life imprisonment if co… It also calls upon the State party to enhance availability of effective legal remedies and implement further awareness-raising and sensitisation measures about such legal remedies against discrimination so that women can avail themselves of them. While noting that legal measures prohibiting sex-selective abortions and female infanticide and other measures are in place, such as the nationwide campaign, "Operation Caring for Girls", launched in 2006 and a system of incentives, the Committee remains concerned at the persistence of illegal practices of sex-selective abortion, female infanticide and the non-registration and abandonment of female children, and about forced abortions. The ITUC’s allegations reference cases where children were brought to work in factories by their parents in order to pay for their school fees.The Committee also notes the information contained in the Government’s report that the net entrance rate for primary school has increased to 99.54 per cent. Thus, the State has established a strict system of juvenile criminal law: 99% of cases brought to trial end in conviction. The Committee previously noted that the law fails to guarantee funding for compulsory education, thus forcing or allowing many schools, particularly in rural regions, to collect tuition and other fees. In particular, the Committee is concerned about: (a) The particular vulnerability of children of migrant workers, especially those left behind by their parents in the care of relatives or others in mainland China to sexual exploitation and abuse;(b) The low rate of prosecution for such crimes against children and the pervasiveness of extrajudicial settlements in mainland China and withdrawal of complaints in Macau SAR, leading to impunity for perpetrators;(c) The lack of awareness among children in all areas of the State party’s jurisdiction about sexual abuse and ways to respond to and report such incidents;(d) The lack of procedures to identify and support child victims of sexual exploitation and trafficking in Hong Kong SAR; and(e) The limited access to justice, shelter, medical services, psychological counselling and compensation for child victims of sexual exploitation and abuse under the national legislation in mainland China, Hong Kong SAR and Macau SAR. Universal Periodic Review (2009) The Government indicated that in 2006 the Compulsory Education Law was revised to provide that, “[l]ocal governments shall provide equal access to compulsory education for school-aged children living with their parents or guardians who are working or residing in places other than their registered permanent residences”, following which localities established basic regimes to ensure access to compulsory education for migrant children. It calls upon the State party to systematically compile detailed data on cross-border and internal trafficking, reflecting the age and ethnic background of the victims. The Chinese authorities are trying to control the Tibetan Buddhist religion. In addition, the Ministry of Justice promulgated the “Regulations on the administration of juvenile delinquent rehabilitation institutions” which provide that children under the age of 16 are exempt from participation in productive labour. in conformity with article 4, paragraph 2 of the Optional Protocol.The Committee further recommends that the State party:(a) Undertake research on the root causes and extent of the commercial sexual exploitation of children, child sex tourism and sale of children, child prostitution and child pornography, to identify children at risk, assess the extent of the problem and develop targeted policies and programmes in mainland China and Macau SAR;(b) Immediately address the issue of corruption and impunity in Macau SAR as a matter of priority, through rigorous investigations of complaints of complicity by government officials and their prosecution for such crimes; and(c) Take all necessary measures, legal and institutional, to strengthen identification, investigation and prosecution of foreign paedophiles in all jurisdiction of the State party, particularly in Macau SAR. (Paragraphs 19 and 20)_________________________________________________________________Administrative detention of childrenUN Committee on the Rights of the Child (Concluding Observations, October 2013). It urges the State party to bring its domestic legislation into line with international standards and to speedily complete, adopt and implement the draft national programme of action against human trafficking. The justice system remained plagued by unfair trials and torture and other ill-treatment in detention. It also urges the State party to investigate and prosecute the reports of abuse and violence against ethnic minority women by local family planning officials, including forced sterilisation and forced abortion. According to a new report released by Human Rights Watch, China poses an existential threat to international human rights. Nonetheless, the ITUC states that, according to statistics from the China Education and Research Network, the number of overall primary schools has decreased, as has enrolment at both the primary and secondary levels. The Committee expresses its serious concern about the lack of accessible compulsory education for the children of migrant workers and urges the Government to redouble its efforts to ensure that these children have equal access to free basic education. (Paragraph 66) It further recommends that it: (a) The quality of education throughout mainland China, affecting students’ repetition and retention and high drop-out rates for lower secondary school especially in a number of southern provinces;(b) Inadequate sanitation and hygiene, poor school infrastructure and physical safety for children in schools;(c) The lack of measures to promote the use and learning of mother-tongue and minority languages in the context of the bilingual education policy and discrimination against Tibetan and Uyghur children and children of migrant workers within the Chinese education system;(d) The multiple barriers in the use and promotion of the Tibetan language in schools in the Tibet Autonomous Region (TAR) of China and reports of closure of schools and detention of teachers;(e) The prohibition of admission of children of an “evil cult” to educational institutions, as stipulated in Article 10 of the 2013 regulation on “Admission Requirements for Universities and Colleges,” which prevents children of Falun Gong practitioners, among others, from obtaining college education; and(f) The quality and reliability of education data throughout the country. These violations include child poverty, violence … The ITUC states that, while buying trafficked children carries a sentence of three years’ imprisonment, the vast majority of buyers are not prosecuted, particularly if the child is not harmed and the buyer cooperates with the police. The Committee is also of the view that the "Diligent Work and Economical Study" (qingong jianxue) programme for schoolchildren constitutes exploitative child labour, in contradiction of the provisions of articles 6 and 7 of the Covenant, and Convention No. However, the Committee noted the indication from several sources that the phenomenon of trafficking for the purposes of forced physical labour and prostitution was worsening. Forced labour. The Committee is also concerned at the lack of reliable information, including statistics, on the extent of the problem of sexual exploitation of women and children in the State party, including prostitution, sale and trafficking in persons. In this regard, section 26 of the “Platform on re-education and reform of prisoners” of 2007 provides that the labour performed should focus on the acquisition of skills, and that the duration of labour shall not exceed four hours per day or 20 hours per week. It is especially concerned that:(a) Children above 16 years can be detained in RTL facilities without any access to legal safeguards or representation and such detention can last up to 18 months, according to the State party; (a) Abolish the institutionalised system of RTL and ‘Work Study Schools’ which allows for the widespread application of administrative detention of children; end the use of incommunicado detention of children, including by immediately closing all secret detention facilities, such as “black jails”; (Paragraphs 91 and 92), 2. UN Committee on Economic, Social and Cultural RightsLast reported: 27 to 29 April 2005Concluding Observations issued: 13 May 2005 (a) The common practice of the Re-Education through Labour Programme (RTL) and ‘Work Study Schools’ (gongdu xuexiao) and the use of forced and exploitative child labour under these programmes; and(b) The widespread involvement of children in hazardous work and the worst forms of child labour, especially in mining, manufacturing and brick industries; and inadequate protection of children from 16 to 18 years against hazardous work. (Paragraph 37)In line with its general comments No. It requests the State party to enhance enforcement of the law against trafficking to ensure that those who traffic and sexually exploit women and girls are prosecuted and punished, and to provide all necessary assistance to the victims of trafficking. It requests the Government to continue to provide information on the results achieved, particularly on the number of children of migrant workers who were effectively provided with compulsory education through the measures taken, and estimates on the number of these children who remain out of school. Scroll to: The Committee also noted that the Compulsory Education Law states that no miscellaneous fees should be charged for compulsory education and that the State Education Inspection and Supervision Group is responsible for monitoring the enforcement of the Law. The ITUC also indicates that there is a lack of transparency in reporting and investigations. (Paragraph 52). 11 (1999) on plans of action for primary education and 13 (1999) on the right to education, the Committee calls upon the State party to take effective measures to ensure that all children, including migrant children and ethnic minority children, have access to free compulsory primary education. It should be noted that almost two thirds of children who are not attending school in China are girls. In addition, the Government states that more support has been given to schools in areas with greater numbers of children of migrant workers and that subsidies have been given to provinces where progress has been made on this issue. It also asks the State party to implement comprehensive measures to prevent further abductions of boys with intellectual disabilities and provide remedies to the victims. The Committee is also concerned about the high junior middle school dropout rate in some rural areas. The Committee recalls its previous recommendations and urges the State party to take the necessary legislative measures to harmonise the Penal Code of 1997 with the provisions of the Optional Protocol, and in particular: (a )Ensure that all the offences referred to in article 3, paragraph 1 of the Optional Protocol are fully covered under the Penal Code, whether such offences are committed domestically or transnationally or on an individual or organised basis, paying particular attention to the sale and trafficking of children for the purpose of adoption; and(b) Establish extraterritorial jurisdiction over the offences referred to in article 3, paragraph 1, in conformity with article 4, paragraph 2 of the Optional Protocol; and abolish the requirement of double criminality for the prosecution on the Mainland of offences committed abroad;(c) Consider the Optional Protocol as a legal basis for extradition in respect of such offences. (i) Forced labour in re-education through labour camps.  CCP members hold almost all top government and security apparatus positions. In this regard, it is seriously concerned about the reports of official harassment and forced closure of privately run schools for migrant children in areas where they have little or no access to the state school system. Another category of children affected by discrimination in school is children with disabilities: according to official figures, only 76% of them have access to education. International Labour OrganisationDirect request on Worst Forms of Child Labour Convention, 1999 (No. The Committee is also concerned at the lack of reliable information, including statistics, on the extent of the problem of sexual exploitation of women and children in the State party, including prostitution, sale and trafficking in persons. It also calls upon the State party to strengthen its system of data collection in regard to all forms of violence against women and to include such information in its next report. Inadequate reproductive health care and education. The Committee also noted that the State Council approved a new National Plan of Action against Trafficking in Women and Children (2008–12) (NPAT 2008–12) in 2007. The Committee expresses its utmost concern about the abduction of persons with intellectual disabilities, most of them children, and the staging of “mining accidents” in Hebei, Fujian, Liaoning and Sichuan, resulting in the victim’s death in order to claim compensation from the mine owners.The Committee strongly urges the State party to continue investigating these incidents and prosecute all those responsible, and impose appropriate sanctions. 182 concerning the Prohibition and Immediate Action for the Elimination of the Worst Forms of Child Labour of the International Labour Organisation (ILO) to which China is a party. The Committee also notes that the Convention does not appear to have ever been invoked in a court of law.The Committee encourages the State party to ensure that the Convention, the Committee's general recommendations and related domestic legislation are made an integral part of the legal education and training of judicial officers, including judges, lawyers and prosecutors, and to ensure that, in particular, judges and officers of the special courts and tribunals are familiar with the Convention and the State party's obligations thereunder. With regard to re-education through labour programmes, the Committee urges the Government to take the necessary measures to ensure that the “Regulations on the administration of juvenile delinquent rehabilitation institutions” are extended to exempt children between 16 and 18 years from productive labour in these institutions. It requests the Government to continue to provide information on measures taken in this regard and to provide information from the monitoring and evaluation exercises conducted to monitor these policies. The Committee further requests the Government to provide information on the concrete steps taken to eradicate these types of forced or compulsory labour, and on the results achieved._________________________________________________________________. The Committee further recommends that mainland China take immediate legal, policy and awareness-raising measures to prevent sex-selective abortions, female infanticide and abandonment of girls, including by addressing factors that reinforce cultural norms and practices that discriminate girls. (rejected)_________________________________________________________________Child labour, including the worst forms of child labourUN Convention on the Rights of the Child (Concluding Observations, October 2013) The Committee recalls its previous recommendations and urges the State party to take the necessary legislative measures to harmonise the Penal Code of 1997 with the provisions of the Optional Protocol, and in particular: The Committee further urges the State party to increase public expenditure on education in general, and to take deliberate and targeted measures towards the progressive realisation of the right to education for the disadvantaged and marginalised groups throughout the country. Section 25 states that the staff of these schools shall show concern and provide good care for students, and that these schools shall provide an ideological and cultural education, including education in vocational skills. Article 8. International cooperation. It remains however deeply concerned about the continued application of administrative detention of children, including RTL and ‘Work Study Schools’ (gongdu xuexiao), and the failure of the State party to end these practices despite repeated concerns expressed by the treaty bodies and UN special procedures mandate holders. It encourages the State party to continue to strengthen efforts to ensure that all girls are registered at birth, in particular in rural areas. The Committee is concerned about the impact of the adverse sex ratio, which may contribute to the increase in trafficking in women and girls.The Committee urges the State party to strengthen its monitoring of the implementation of existing laws against selective abortion and female infanticide and to enforce them through fair legal procedures that sanction officials acting in excess of their authority. 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