For the life demands and to improve and to fulfill the medical requirements of human lives, the notable changes have been accounted in medical sectors that are significant not only for the indoor patients but also for the remote-home residential patients. In Table 1, the performance results are measured, in which ECG information was accessed and stored in cloud storage (i.e., in MySQL database tool), in case of inward monitoring and outward monitoring modes. Application controller provides managing of the facilities, for private cloud platform, in order to manage the deployed applications, such as ECG information acquisition and storage, ECG classification algorithm, alarm indications, and API for ECG belt, and services for information access and monitoring, respectively. This work was supported by the Institute for Information and Communications Technology Promotion (IITP) grant funded by the Korean government (MSIT) (no. Therefore, caregivers or family members of a patient can access the information of his/her patient via cellular phone through a medical application installed. To make an analysis, a replicate copy of ECG classification algorithm is always a part of the local system, in each medical ward, that will be activated only when the cloud server will disconnect. Therefore, real-time medical information could be accessed through wireless sensor configuration, and patient will be located anywhere in the boundary of the medical center or in coverage of wireless sensor network. At a lower layer, in the top-down scenario, cloud service, platform-as-a-service, is employed to manage the processing of the application or software hosted at SaaS layer. Both the HTTP and MQTT protocols are employed in the IoT cloud in order to provide visual and timely ECG data to users. At the end, in Section 4, overall work study is concluded and future work is described. We are committed to sharing findings related to COVID-19 as quickly as possible. �y���l̺ߴ���V���ï��w��a�m�zu���l����f�W�[_����c�?~Z���6z};����� ��}S���&���U Cloud computing leverages the power of the Internet to eliminate the need for the purchase, installation and maintenance of independent data centers and networks. As the technological demands are increasing, the medical systems have been updated with the new advanced technologies (i.e., smart medical systems); however, there are still several challenges, such as to carry the remotely located information and the remote connectivity issues, mainly present in the healthcare systems. In detail, we entered 200 arrhythmia patients in the designed database and were also able to manage their medical information and the corresponding reports upon individual requests (by patients, medical term, and medical advisors). Eventually, this study proposed and modeled a sensor-based wireless network scenario to capture the ECG waveforms of patients that might be moving out of their medical ward, without connectivity with ECG devices, through the wireless ECG belt, embedded ECG sensor, fixed over the patient body. Like in other IT sectors, there has been tremendous progress accounted in medical sectors (and in telemonitoring systems) that changes the human life protection against several chronic diseases, and the patient’s medical information can be accessed wirelessly via Wi-Fi and cellular systems. Nowadays, various medical sensors have been used in hospitals in order to keep the physiological and physical status of patients, patient health information is tracked in real-time manners and diagnosis, and corresponding treatments are applied. This is also considered significant to inform the caregiver in case of an emergency or an indication for patient services, for that they are responsible (like patients’ medicine intake schedule, eating, and others, while he/she is not near to the patient, or outside the patient room or medical ward. These parameters are sent to a remote Internet location so that user can view these details from anywhere in the world. Each time information is transmitting, in real time manners; store in the form of table’s records that will further retrieve based on the queries will be requested or required by the medical individuals. 323, Webb Center, Tahlequah, OK 74464, USA. Furthermore, it’s cloud based and secure. The rest of this research paper is organized as follows. We will be providing unlimited waivers of publication charges for accepted research articles as well as case reports and case series related to COVID-19. ECG data are gathered using a wearable monitoring node and are transmitted directly to the IoT cloud using Wi-Fi. Furthermore, however, we have introduced an application design that was based on simulation, for an instance, is efficient in case the transmission from cloud computing server is disconnected due to system maintenance reasons and also in case if an unauthorized event will occur and measure the overall cloud health computing system. Therefore, for this purpose, medical application is designed and modeled, which will be installed in the authorized cellular device, with the registration of a user name and security password from the cloud, which makes the automated connectivity with the external medical devices (such as ECG devices) through Bluetooth and Wi-Fi accesses. A. Stankovic, A. Terzis, and M. Welsh, “Wireless sensor networks for healthcare,”, R. D. Caytiles and S. Park, “A study of the design of wireless medical sensor network based u-Healthcare system,”, T. Gao, C. Pesto, L. Selavo et al., “Wireless medical sensor networks in emergency response: implementation and pilot results,” in, N. Fernando, S. W. Loke, and W. Rahayu, “Mobile cloud computing: a survey,”, C. Wen, M.-F. Yeh, K.-C. Chang, and R.-G. Lee, “Real-time ECG telemonitoring system design with mobile phone platform,”, W. Yao, C.-H. Chu, and Z. Li, “The use of RFID in healthcare: benefits and barriers,” in, H. Al Nahas and J. S. Deogun, “Radio frequency identification applications in smart hospitals,” in, M. Mayer, N. Görtz, and J. Kaitovic, “RFID tag acquisition via compressed sensing,” in, C. D. Kidd, R. Orr, G. D. Abowd et al., “The aware home: a living laboratory for ubiquitous computing research,” in, E. A. Fry and L. A. Lenert, “MASCAL: RFID tracking of patients, staff and equipment to enhance hospital response to mass casualty events,”, D. I. Tapia, R. S. Alonso, Ó. García, F. de la Prieta, and B. Pérez-Lancho, “Cloud-IO: cloud computing platform for the fast deployment of services over wireless sensor networks,” in, D. I. Tapia, R. S. Alonso, J. F. De Paz, C. Zato, and F. de la Prieta, “A telemonitoring system for healthcare using heterogeneous wireless sensor networks,”, K. Dongkyun, J. Ha, and K. You, “Adaptive extended Kalman filter based geolocation using TDOA/FDOA,”, H. Liu, H. Darabi, P. Banerjee, and J. Liu, “Survey of wireless indoor positioning techniques and systems,”. Telemonitoring system via cellular access [, Real-Time Cloud-Based Health Tracking and Monitoring System in Designed Boundary for Cardiology Patients, Department of Computer and Information Security, Sejong University, 209 Neungdong-ro, Gwangjin-gu, Seoul 05006, Republic of Korea, Division of Convergence Computer & Media, Mokwon University, Deajeon, Republic of Korea, Advanced Image and Information Technology, School of Electronics & Information Engineering, Chonbuk National University, 664-14 1Ga, Deokjin-Dong, Jeonju 561-756, Republic of Korea, Department of Mathematics and Computer Science, Northeastern State University, 611 N. Grand Ave No. Personalized Health Monitoring System Using IOT and Cloud – IJCST, 26. x��=ْ�Ƒ��?�c���p� For accessing and monitoring the medical information of heart patients residing in the hospital premises, private computing platform is built up by employing of System Center 2012. A total of six virtual machines were deployed in private cloud system, four were installed to carry and manage the medical information coming from the medical wards (i.e., four medical wards), and the remaining virtual machines such as cloud VM number 05 and cloud VM number 06 were deployed for patient registration and administration purposes and for monitoring the medical information from ECG belt, while patients are in outward monitoring mode, through API installed in VM number 06 in private cloud. Note that you can also use Cloud Monitoring custom metrics. A new cloud-based fine-grained health information acce ss control framework  was introduced which addressed the security challenges and the cloud reciprocity A cloud-structural health monitoring method based on smartphone was proposed, and a structural health monitoring system Orion-CC, which integrates functions of data acquisition, data analysis and data upload, was developed on smartphone to The cloud consists of layers, primarily the back end and the front end. As explained above, private cloud has a special meaning for several information technology (IT) applications and services, including telemonitoring systems. (i)In telemonitoring service, the required information was gathered according to the situation and from users or patients, in premises of deployed wireless network, through the connectivity of various sensors, such as medical sensors and biometric sensor devices [27, 28]. In cloud computing environment, the platform-as-a-service (PaaS) layer used three main modules, such as “container scaling manager or tomcat container, workflow engine as service platform, and Aneka application platform,” to manage the processing of hosted software and to fulfill the demands/requests from users. But in the current study based on some requirements, specifically due to the security issues, communication is limited to the local private body area networks (PHBAN), a network which retrieves the information from the patient through employing of medical noninvasive equipment or noninvasive devices attached with the patients; in our case, we use the ECG devices and also ECG belt with wireless sensor (ECGBWS) according to the scenarios, such as inward monitoring (IWM) and outward monitoring. While server connection will again establish, all stored medical information will be updated in the server site database. used for monitoring the health status of the user. <>>> As the enhancements are made in telecommunication sectors, the telemedicine systems are discovered and as the passage of time, these systems have also been updated with the new technologies (i.e., telemonitoring systems) which are significant in case of disease diagnosis and patient medication and remote monitoring of patients and treatments; by this way, the patients can be monitored from the places (e.g., medical centers and homes) where they are situated, over the cellular platform. Detailed literature is conducted in Section 2, and Section 3 describes the proposed system design and modeling, including private cloud design, inward monitoring, and outward monitoring. So it’s a place to securely record and report everyone’s safety events. Moreover, the study provided an immense platform of knowledge against the causes of arrhythmia and about the arrhythmia chat engine in which medical advisors can share their ideas and suggestions that will be remarkable to fight against the enormous condemnatory heart diseases. In this study, based on the medical organizational specifications and requirements for communication, including the security requirements, private cloud computing environment is designed and modeled where the medical information of heart patients who underregistered or resided in the hospital, inside of the medical ward and outside of the medical ward in the premises of the hospital, is accessed and monitored in real-time manners. For that, depending upon the demands, a new system is required that not only provides healthcare services inside the hospitals or healthcare centers but also provides efficient healthcare facility to remotely located patients. Especially, in the situation to fight against cardiology or arrhythmia that will always happen suddenly—if it happened—therefore, a possibility to monitor it is through remote networked portable ECG telemonitoring system [17–20]. As a consequence, to gain the high efficiency, scalability, and security, with the overall minimal consumption of cost, most of the information technology- (IT-) based systems, such as educational, industrial, transportation, and medical systems, are now connected and communicating through cloud computing platform which minimizes the difficulties and complexities of end-user workloads, without purchasing of any expensive software or hardware. As the current medical system designed is also mainly focused to employ a potential security solution against the adversaries or unauthorized individuals that might reside inside the medical center boundary or intercepting from outside network. 4 0 obj For an effective monitoring system cloud uses BSN to monitor the patient health conditions. In studies [31–36], developments have been made to retrieve patient’s real-time medical information or medical status, over the far distance, or remotely from everywhere, which were significant in getting of information and in monitoring, as well. Some of … Usually, in telemonitoring systems, the carried information is saved into two storage modes: real-time mode, which stored information in real-time manners as its monitoring from ECG devices and in store-and-forward mode, where the carried (monitoring) information is latterly stored, after the specific session, and used for health analysis purposes . Therefore, shorter access for few days or based on patient treatment session, authorized access will be provided to patient’s caregivers, such as patient family member(s), that might be with the patient to support additional services, such buying of medicine, providing meals to the patient, and other important services which the patient needs. Usually, the medical sensor devices are embedded or placed on specific parts of the patient where the medical rates (or information) are required to measure, and the observed information is further transmitted wirelessly, monitored, and stored at the designated controller site (or computer machine) where the authorized persons (or authorized medical advisor) are situated for information analyzing and diagnosis purposes . The service manager is an integrated, self-service portal and an automated management, as a part of private cloud computing, a platform for various services provided. In our case, the main four virtual machines are created corresponding to the medical wards, meaning that there are four medical wards considered, and each encompasses only ten patients for real-time medical information monitoring, and an API was installed for accessing and monitoring of the patients, while they are outside of their medical wards in a hospital area, which may consider as virtual machines, as part of private cloud computing. Eucalyptus, called “Elastic Utility Computing Architecture for Linking Your Programs to Useful Systems,” mainly deploys for private and hybrid cloud computing services and is an open software used to implement infrastructure as a service (IaaS), network as a service, and storage as a service, and these services are made available for end-users by consolidating with other existing infrastructures in cloud computing environment [6, 7]. Holter is also responsible for patients’ ECG information, its storage, and assessment. In the disaster scenarios, several major requirements, such as scalable usage of sensors and networks, reliable and efficient transmission ways, and costless and efficient hardware devices, have to be considered in order to track the remotely located patients’ information. Health monitoring systems (HMS) are based on new generation transducers, such as multifunctional optic fibers embedded in the elements, linked together in a tight network. In case an organization wants to keep its resources well and secured in its data center, away from the others or from external entities, the best solution that has been provided by cloud technology is private cloud computing by using the concepts of visualization . Sign up here as a reviewer to help fast-track new submissions. Vault is a more intelligent way to manage your risk, health and safety responsibilities. Cloud based healthcare system consists of a computing device and … The platform provides real-time insights into enterprise systems and applications. Aggregated data is further relayed to a HCO for long term storage using Internet connec-tivity on the concentrator, typically via a smartphone’s WiFi or To make a new extension as a part in healthcare systems or telemonitoring systems, the technology called cloud computing is required in which cardiology patients will be undertaken and monitored through the RIFD-based medical tags that are considered to be implanted in patients’ bodies (i.e., over their hearts) and real-time information, for example, heart normal and abnormal rates, will be captured, monitored, analyzed, stored, and viewed by the authorized medical advisors and also will be viewed by the family member of the patient under security authorization rules. Telemonitoring is not a new term, in information technology (IT), which has been employed to remotely monitor the health of patients that are located not in common places, such hospitals or medical centers. In short, the medical information will be received at the cloud server, from each patient with his/her unique identifier, the diagnostic will be performed based upon the classification algorithm implemented as part of proposed study, and simultaneously, feedback will be transmitted to the designated medical staff and also to the designated advisor for overview and for suggestions in case they will require any. These enhancements made are accounted as tremendous changes in medical systems and in reducing of critical sudden conditions of patients during an emergency and in reducing the effects of diseases, as the diseases are diagnosed and handled before going to be critical. In both cases, the security has to be managed to avoid the inside/outside attacking issues, as the medical information is always somehow critical to protect. Cloud based Health Care is the integration of cloud computing and health monitoring. %���� Moreover, it is a generic infrastructure that manages the processing of distributive applications and is a consolidation platform to work with other existing infrastructures (e.g., “Amazon EC2” as part of cloud computing . Overall, cloud computing designed for accessing, monitoring, and storing of arrhythmia patients’ information is simulated in a desktop of a computer system, with system specifications of (1) Intel® Core™ i7-4790 CPU at a 3.60 GHz processor, (2) 8.00 GB installed memory, (3) 64-bit operating system, Windows 10, ×64-based processor, (4) Realtek PCIe GBE Family Controller, Ethernet, (5) 1000/1000 (Mbps) link speed, (6) IPv6, and others. Therefore, during that time, measuring the rhythms of the patient will be required to avoid the critical cases of arrhythmia while they are out of their medical wards. Those algorithms were efficient in managing of alarms and other indications acquired from cloud users and from configured system entities. Aneka software, a development platform, provides several services in the development phases of distributive applications, for example, defines useful logic for distributive applications. In , ECG analyses were performed by hosting application (or analysis software), as software-as-a-service (SaaS) and as a web service, in public cloud computing environment. As telemonitoring systems are not the new technological solutions in the monitoring of patients’ health, several medical healthcare systems  have been deployed to monitor the indoor or/and remotely located patients’ health status to overcome the emergency cases and to fight against and diagnose the critical diseases before they become worst. Therefore, the private cloud platform is modeled only that would easy to make integration with other modules of the proposed system such as cellular module, ECG acquisition module, Web application, and security and secure logon. <>/ProcSet[/PDF/Text/ImageB/ImageC/ImageI] >>/MediaBox[ 0 0 612 792] /Contents 4 0 R/Group<>/Tabs/S/StructParents 0>> Review articles are excluded from this waiver policy. A total of 50 experiments were performed to measure the results, such as ECG signals or information received and stored at the cloud server and security computations, while experiment number 00 is not mentioned in Table 1 but was performed to test the overall cloud system configuration in order to avoid the transmission errors. It's an open-source physical computing platform based on a simple micro- Park, and G.-C. Park, “A Design and Analysis Ubiquitous Healthcare Monitoring System over Wireless Sensor Network,”, D. Aranki, G. Kurillo, P. Yan, D. M. Liebovitz, and R. Bajcsy, “Real-time tele-monitoring of patients with chronic heart-failure using a smartphone: lessons learned,”, D. Dziak, B. Jachimczyk, and W. J. Kulesza, “IoT-based information system for healthcare application: design methodology approach,”, V. P. Cornet and R. J. Holden, “Systematic review of smartphone-based passive sensing for health and wellbeing,”, N. Xiong, A. V. Vasilakos, L. T. Yang et al., “Comparative analysis of quality of service and memory usage for adaptive failure detectors in healthcare systems,”, A. Shahzad, M. Lee, H. D. Kim, S.-M. N. Amour, A. Hersi, N. Alajlan, Y. Bazi, and H. AlHichri, R. S. Tolentino, Y.-T. Kim, B. Holter is a patient-worn unit where patients are situated, and ECG devices are connected with them and provided GPS (global positioning system) information which would be helpful in cases of emergency. Implementing the position estimation algorithms, such as more advances with the uses of frequency difference of arrival (FDOA) and time difference of arrival (TDFA) , that compute more accuracy compared with existing and are adequate in computations both for indoor and outdoor location estimations [27, 30]. In the offline system, the medical running application is designed with efficiency to receive the upcoming medical information from each patient and store it into a local memory that configures as a part of application software. For that, wearable medical sensors, such as electrocardiography sensors, blood pressure sensors, and glucometer, have commonly been used to make possible to acquire the real-time information from the remotely located patients; therefore, the medical information is further carried, via the Internet, to perform medical diagnosis and the corresponding treatments. As a consequence, the performance results shown in Table 1 are significant, as high accuracy is computed based on 50 experiment results. At the same time, the proposed system design is also efficient to store the medical information in case of system disconnectivity, system connection failure, or other network or system internal issues; so if these cases might happen, then the offline system would be functional. GSM/GPRS networks are utilized for MMS, and further, the patient’s monitored information is transmitted to the MMS center to the server via TCP/IPs. As the medical information is important, therefore, it has to be measured continuously and in real-time manners. An implementation of the system is shown in Figure 11. Things like accident reports, training records, hazards and inspections. This study is also a piece of enhancement made to track and monitor the real-time medical information, bounded in authorized area, through the modeling of private cloud computing. Eventually, through this scenario, several medical wards would be established based on the coming numbers of the patients in the medical center. stream endobj (iii)In communication service, the text and voice messages were allowed to transfer over the designed cloud platform, through the employment of various wireless sensor devices, to fulfill the desired, overall communication goals, together with the microcontrollers as well as routing schemes and queuing managing algorithms are acquired for implementation . Each workflow engine was hosted, as a part, inside a tomcat container and would be increased in numbers based on the work demands from the users. Performance Modelling of a Cloud based Health Monitoring System Using Dynamic Control System endobj To do this, an algorithm is deployed that made the classifications, on measurements, of heart rates which would be significant in finding the abnormal heart rates, and based on the measured rates, the corresponding medical advisor would be concerned through MMS, in real-time manners. 323, Webb Center, Tahlequah, OK 74464, USA, In telemonitoring service, the required information was gathered according to the situation and from users or patients, in premises of deployed wireless network, through the connectivity of various sensors, such as medical sensors and biometric sensor devices [, A service, called location identification, was also accounted as a part of Cloud-IO, which provided the real-time identification of the cloud users and other network entities through estimating of their positions by deploying of location estimation algorithms. There are two main kinds of cloud monitoring tools: Built-in cloud monitoring tools offered by cloud providers. In one medical ward, the numbers of the patients are limited up to 10 patients, in our case of study, that much scalable to accommodate the number of patients (equal to 10); however, these numbers can be increased according to the requirements and based upon the space available. At both sides, in either MMS sent from the patient or sent from the medical advisor, the communication always carried in real-time senses. Therefore, the signs, such as √ and X, are used to show that the ECG information was received and the security test was verified or not. Whereas, this study also deployed a potential security mechanism, through cryptography [37, 38], for ECGBWS protection against the unauthorized entities, and would employ the self-launched attacking scenarios that a measurement will be efficient against the insecurities and for measurement computed from security mechanism evaluation (process). In the real-time mode, patients’ abnormal heartbeats rates are measured, to make be efficient, in order to measure the accurate heart rates. While required, patient information is delivered via MMS (multimedia messaging service) through GPRS (general packet radio service)/GSM (global system for mobile communication) networks. As the information is measured from ECG device which is directly attached to the patient, and the measured information further assessed (or classified), with the classification algorithm, resulted in the abnormal heart rates, then at the same time, this information is transmitted to the server in the form of MMS, with the embedded information of Holter-GPS. It means that the hospital can just use the services of public cloud to underpin the continuum healthcare and also can manage the administration and other required IT requirements that have the potential to retrieve the real-time information of patients without any delay, truly synchronized and securely shared among the systems (and users), and scalable in cases of workload, and the information is always be accessible when required. This was a cost-effective solution, by employing tag, that provided inclusive information by tracking and monitoring the medical conditions of patients in each step (or state) of disaster, such as from the place where the disaster happened to the ambulance and from the ambulance to the hospital. (1) Application Design and Implementation. MMS is a new technology and developed under the 3GPP (third generation partnership project), which made it possible to transmit the multimedia messages (e.g., text, audio, and video) that varied in sizes. The telemonitoring systems have been playing very important roles in reducing the effects of sudden critical diseases (i.e., arrhythmia causes) and give future trends for pervasive healthcare systems. The design of miTag was deemed highly scalable and extensive that can be used with a variant of communication systems, that is, GPS, and able to sense the patient status such as blood pressure rate, body temperature, and ECG signals. The other electronic devices, such as laptops and tablets, can also be used to visualize the medical information, in real-time manners, prior to register via the cloud. Inward monitoring (IWM) has been a common development in telemonitoring systems [6, 13], which provides monitoring facility to monitor the health of those patients residing in the medical units or medical wards; generally, our study case is the same as those existing studies in the area of health monitoring of patient especially for arrhythmia patient. Iot-Cloud based wearable ECG monitoring system will monitor a person & # 39 ; s.! Smart and effective healthcare services to the IoT cloud in order of ’. Cellular phone through a medical application installed MQTT protocols are employed in the world wearable ECG system... The publication of this research is a new wireless sensor network scenario is designed accommodate! New sensors, if required health and safety responsibilities demonstrations to avoid some medical... 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