The JD movies were one consequence of this – even if (as we shall see) elements of them still appear to be implicitly targeted towards an older adult audience. JSTOR®, the JSTOR logo, JPASS®, Artstor®, Reveal Digital™ and ITHAKA® are registered trademarks of ITHAKA. ... Data source: Arrest estimates for 1980-2014 developed by the Bureau of Justice Statistics and disseminated through "Arrest Data Analysis Tool." The psychologist Frederic Wertham’s enormously influential book The Seduction of the Innocent, published in 1954, drew attention to the effects of comic books, and especially so-called ‘horror comics’, on young pepole’s behaviour. All the Hollywood films I consider below – as well as a great many others – were subject to detailed scrutiny by the industry’s Production Code Administration. Britain experienced its own home-grown moral panic about the effects of comic books, as Martin Barker has documented, although there was rather less concern about the harmful influence of the cinema. The industry’s dilemmas here were also quite similar – although they arguably took longer to become apparent. By the late 1950s, Time magazine was estimating that US teenagers had a combined spending power of 10 billion dollars, of which 16% was spent on ‘entertainment’. Gambling arrests 4. However, as the debate evolved, much of the concern came to focus specifically on the influence of the media and mass culture. At the same time, the industry faced a more fundamental dilemma. Online. As Gilbert explains, part of the concern here was provoked by the gradual integration of distinct racial groups (the black rhythm and blues group in the preface to Altman’s film is also not coincidental); and to some extent by fears about middle-class white Americans being somehow corrupted by their increasing access to ‘lower-class’ fashions and styles of behaviour, not least through the institution of the high school. This essay looks at the idea of juvenile delinquency, and how it was constructed in British and American cinema in the 1950s. (Public Domain) The industry gradually came to realize that it was targeting an older audience that was no longer going to the movies very much; and it began, albeit belatedly and uncertainly, to focus on the increasingly lucrative audience of teenagers and younger adults. Juvenile delinquency and the evolution of the British juvenile courts, c.1900-1950 Kate Bradley, University of Kent. Prior to the 1950s, the cinema had been a genuine mass medium: movie-going was typically an intergenerational experience, with whole families attending together. Much of the early research on family structure and delinquency focused on simplified measures of family structure that may mischaracterize the There are various theories of juvenile delinquency and various researchers have reported different reasons of delinquency. Polity is the journal of the Northeastern Political Science Association, published quarterly since 1968. maximum runtime. (Project Summary) This project will focus on the British criminal justice system in the 1950s regarding juvenile behaviour. The Effects Of Juvenile Delinquency In The 1950's 951 Words | 4 Pages. Embezzlement arrests 3. The Rise of Juvenile Delinquency in the 1950s. These institutions-the Children's Bureau, the National Institute of Mental Health, and the Senate Judiciary Subcommittee to Investigate Juvenile Delinquency-provided friendly venues for progressive ideas while preventing other ideas from being considered. Theft arrests 4. This item is part of JSTOR collection Published By: The University of Chicago Press. This duly led to what the film scholar Thomas Doherty calls the ‘juvenilization’ of American movies: the targeting of young people via movies and stars designed specifically to appeal to them. Sex offense(excluding rape and prostitution) arrests 3. Official crime statistics – as well as other data such as victim surveys and self-report studies – vary significantly depending upon which kinds of behaviour are perceived as crimes, which measures are used (for example, whether crimes are reported, or recorded, or result in arrests and convictions), as well as how these figures are interpreted. Select the purchase It considers how US films like Blackboard Jungle and Rebel Without a Cause responded to moral panics, both about youth crime and about the effects of film viewing itself. Perhaps inevitably, young people often serve as a focus for a whole range of hopes and fears about the future. The number of arrests involving juveniles in 2018 was at its lowest level since at least 1980, and much of the decline has occurred in the past 10 years. Some of the latest juvenile delinquency statistics include: In 2012, police arrested 182 violent juvenile offenders for every 100,000 juveniles. Some of the most common causes of juvenile delinquency are as follows. ©2000-2020 ITHAKA. However, Gilbert also points to the role of the numerous intermediaries and commentators who took it upon themselves to define and explain the phenomenon: journalists, campaigners and lobby groups, ambitious politicians, philanthropic foundations, academics, social workers and law enforcement agencies all had different motivations for talking up the problem of juvenile delinquency. Ever since the evolution of radios and television gave us the ability to project music, sports, news, etcetera, the world has been able to tune in to what is happening halfway across the world from their location. Get an answer for 'What are the statistics on juvenile crime since 1950? Other strategies of this kind included the provision of extensive ‘health warnings’ in the opening titles, although these were rarely as elaborate as those in Altman’s The Delinquents. The Office of Juvenile Justice and Delinquency Prevention (OJJDP) compiles arrest information provided by law enforcement agencies each year and creates reports examining the trends, rates and statistics for juvenile crimes.Every four years the OJJDP publishes a comprehensive study as part of its Juvenile Offenders and Victims National Report Series. For contemporary criminologists, the issue here is more to do with labeling – that is, how it is that some kinds of behaviour are defined as ‘delinquent’ in the first place. What accounts for this? Numerous explanations of the apparent epidemic of delinquency were proffered at the time, not least by academics; and these different ways of framing the ‘problem’ also inevitably implied particular solutions to it. Anxieties about juvenile delinquency made for good box office, but they also increased the visibility of those who criticized the industry for its irresponsibility. Changes in family life during the war – men fighting and women working – led to concerns about a breakdown in family communication and socialization. It is estimated that the percentage for violent crime arrests currently stands at about 17 % (Barker 1). The wave of concern that was both reflected and constructed in the JD films of the 1950s was by no means a new phenomenon. In 1999, females accounted for only 27 percent of juvenile arrests. As the historian James Gilbert has shown, there were waves of concern immediately after the war, and then again in the mid-1950s (1953-58). As the decade progressed, this began to unravel. Only partial statistics for 1957 are so far available, what there are, show that this increase was still continuing beyond the middle of the year. Rape arrests 2. However, they posed a dilemma for the industry. Nevertheless, public anxiety about the problem of delinquency was oddly out of step with the apparent incidence of youth crime. West Virginia, Wyoming, Oregon, Alaska, and South Dakota have the highest juvenile custody rates, according to The Sentencing Project. But they did not. risk for participating in juvenile delinquency. Furthermore, as Muncie argues, it was the creation of alternative sentencing and punishment regimes for juveniles – such as reform schools – that enabled ‘juvenile delinquency’ to be identified as a distinctive social problem requiring particular solutions. As is often the case, this construction of the ‘youth problem’ may tell us much more about adults than it does about young people themselves. Meanwhile, the 1950s was a period of increasing affluence, and greater youth autonomy: the social and generational changes that eventually erupted in the 1960s were already beginning to appear. Current issues are available on the Chicago Journals website: Read the latest issue. Often the cause of juvenile delinquency is economic problems in family. Consequently, they were able to limit the debate to policies they favored. The early twentieth century psychologists who defined – and effectively invented – ‘adolescence’ as a unique life-stage clearly saw it as a period of fragility, vulnerability and risk. Instead, the government's response focused on policies of prevention and rehabilitation. Prostitution/commercialized vice arrests 2. Likewise, the script of Blackboard Jungle was adapted to reduce elements of sex, violence and profanity, although this did not enable it to escape criticism (and bans in some cities) once it was released. Introduction The Nature and Extent of Juvenile Delinquency Theories of Juvenile Delinquency Causes of Juvenile Delinquency The Control and Prevention of Juvenile Delinquency Conclusion References Juvenile Delinquency in America On the whole, far fewer juvenile femalesthan males commit crimes. A look at the 1950s juvenile crime debate offers insight on an important They also linked experts sympathetic to progressive ideas to policymakers. Such changes, would, it was feared, turn young people into premature adults. However, the industry was quite ready to censor itself, or at least to strengthen its regulatory codes. ("Delinquency" offenses are those committed by a juvenile which would be crimes if committed by an adult). On the one hand, it was keen to target the teen audience, not least by promising apparently salacious content; yet on the other, it needed to convince adult authority figures of its own moral legitimacy. Edited slightly to fit YouTube's 10 min. A falling trend in the figures of juvenile delinquency-and, for that matter, of adult delinquency too- came to an end in 1954 and since then we have seen the figures rise at an increasing rate. topicsmill.com - look for the list 34 Top Juvenile Delinquency Research Paper Ideas 2020. Where sociologists tended to emphasise the breakdown of mechanisms of social control (especially among immigrant groups), or the role of social class and poverty, psychologists were more inclined to consider the precarious nature of the modern family, or the difficulties of social adjustment during adolescence. option. Polity 1950s, although statistics (however unreliable) do not suggest that youth crime had fallen at this time: in effect, what had disappeared or at least declined was the particular way of formulating the ‘problem’ – or in other words, the label of ‘juvenile delinquency’. In the criminal justice system, a juvenile is defined as an offender who is under 18 years old at the time he allegedly committed his offense. Read your article online and download the PDF from your email or your account. The Rise of Juvenile Delinquency in the 1950s. Here again, comic books came under scrutiny, but the movies were also an increasing focus of concern. As a general-interest journal, it has always sought to publish work of interest to a broad range of political scientists — work that is lively, provocative, and readable. Check out using a credit card or bank account with. Statistical controls for the mothers' age and poverty have been found to remove effects attributed to single-parent families (Crockett et al., 1993). In the 1950s, this didn't mean dealing in street drugs or drive-by shootings, but rather chewing gum in class, souping up a hot rod and talking back to parents. It also led to changes in film exhibition: teenagers were keen on drive-in movies, and on double-bills where they could spend a longer time socializing (or necking). As seen in MST3K Episode #518 - The Atomic Brain. Why did juvenile delinquency occur in the 1950s and what precautions were taken to prevent it? 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